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What is a statement of accounts?

A Statement of Accounts is a summary document that outlines financial transactions between a business and its customers or vendors. It includes details like invoices, payments, credits, and outstanding balances, providing a snapshot of the financial relationship between the parties during a specific period. Statements of accounts are vital financial documents that provide a clear summary of transactions between parties. They ensure transparency, aid in record-keeping, help track payments and debts, resolve disputes, assess creditworthiness, foster trust in relationships, aid in financial planning, ensure regulatory compliance, and support informed decision-making for businesses and individuals alike.

Financial Statements Majorly covered

Analyzing a company’s financial statements is crucial for understanding its financial health and overall strength. There are three main financial statements that provide valuable insights into a company’s performance: the income statement, the balance sheet, and the cash flow statement.

  • Income Statement (Profit and Loss Statement):


The income statement shows a company’s revenues and expenses over a specific period of time, typically a quarterly, half yearly or a yearly. It provides a summary of the company’s profitability during that time frame.

Key Metrics

Revenue/Sales: Total money earned from selling goods or services.

Net Income: Total profit after all expenses and taxes have been deducted from revenue.

Gross Profit: Revenue minus the cost of goods sold (COGS), representing basic profitability.

Operating Income: Gross profit minus operating expenses, showing profitability from normal operations.

Analysis: Investors assess the income statement to understand the company’s ability to generate profit and its operational efficiency.

  • Balance Sheet:


 The balance sheet provides a snapshot of a company’s financial position at a specific point of time.

Key Metrics

Assets: Resources owned by the company, including cash, buildings, inventory, and intellectual property.

Liabilities: Debts and obligations owed by the company, such as loans, accounts payable, and accrued expenses.

Shareholders’ Equity: The residual interest in the assets of the company after deducting liabilities. It represents the owners’ claim on the company’s assets.

Analysis: Investors use the balance sheet to evaluate a company’s liquidity, solvency, and overall financial structure.

  • Cash Flow Statement:


 The cash flow statement tracks how changes in balance sheet and income statement accounts affect cash and cash equivalents.

Key Metrics

Operating Cash Flow: Cash generated or used by the company’s core operating activities.

Investing Cash Flow: Cash used for investments in assets, such as property, equipment, or acquisitions.

Financing Cash Flow: Cash from or used for financing activities, including issuing or repurchasing stock and paying dividends.

Analysis: Investors focus on the cash flow statement to assess a company’s ability to generate cash and to evaluate its liquidity and financial flexibility.

Company Annual Filing

AOC-4 is a specific form that companies in India, registered under the Companies Act 2013, need to file with the Registrar of Companies (RoC) as part of their annual financial reporting requirements. AOC-4 is used for filing the financial statements, including the Balance Sheet, Profit and Loss Account, and other documents as required under the Act.

Contents of AOC-4 Form

Financial Year: AOC-4 form includes the financial year for which the financial statements are being filed.

Type of Financial Statements: Companies can file the form for either individual financial statements, consolidated financial statements, or both.

Balance Sheet: The balance sheet provides a snapshot of the company’s financial position at a specific point in time, detailing assets, liabilities, and shareholders’ equity.

Profit and Loss Account: This document outlines the company’s revenues, costs, and expenses incurred during the financial year.

Director’s Report: AOC-4 includes information about the director’s report, which provides an overview of the company’s business, operations, financial performance, and future outlook.

Auditor’s Report: The auditor’s report is included, detailing the auditor’s opinion on the company’s financial statements’ accuracy and compliance with accounting standards.

List of Attachments: AOC-4 form requires a list of attachments, which typically include the balance sheet, profit and loss account, auditor’s report, and any other documents required by the Companies Act 2013.

Declaration: The form includes a declaration by the company’s directors or authorized signatories confirming the accuracy of the financial statements and compliance with accounting standards.

Basic Concept of Company Accounts

Company accounts refer to the financial records and statements maintained by a company to track its financial transactions and overall financial health. The basic concepts of company accounts revolve around understanding and recording these transactions accurately. Here are some fundamental concepts:

Double-Entry Accounting: This is a fundamental concept in company accounts where every transaction has two aspects: a debit and a credit. For every debit entry made, there must be an equal and corresponding credit entry, ensuring that the accounting equation (Assets = Liabilities + Equity) is always balanced.

Assets, Liabilities, and Equity: These are the three main components of a company’s balance sheet. Assets are what the company owns, liabilities are what it owes, and equity represents the owners’ interest in the company. Proper accounting ensures that these elements are accurately recorded.

Revenue and Expenses: In company accounts, revenue represents the income generated from the company’s main activities, while expenses are the costs incurred to earn that revenue. Proper recording of revenue and expenses is crucial for determining profitability.

Accrual Basis: Most companies use accrual accounting, where transactions are recorded when they occur, not necessarily when the cash is exchanged.

Consistency: Companies need to be consistent in their accounting methods from one period to another. Consistency ensures comparability, allowing stakeholders to analyze the company’s performance over different periods.

Prudence (Conservatism): Accountants follow the principle of prudence, which means being cautious when making judgments about profits and assets. It encourages accountants to anticipate possible losses but not to anticipate profits.

Materiality: This principle states that financial information should be presented and accounted for based on the materiality of the items involved. In other words, only significant transactions and events need to be disclosed in the financial statements.

Going Concern: This assumption presumes that the company will continue to operate in the foreseeable future. Financial statements are prepared with the belief that the company will remain in business without the intention or necessity of liquidation.

Conservatism: This principle guides accountants to choose methods that are less likely to overstate assets or income. In situations where there is uncertainty, accountants should err on the side of understating assets and income.

Substance over Form: This principle ensures that the economic substance of transactions and events is recorded in the financial statements rather than just their legal form. It prevents companies from manipulating transactions to present a more favorable financial position than the reality.

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CS Deepa Sharma

Author is a associate member of the Institute of Company Secretaries of India (ICSI) and apart from that she holds LLB degree and Master in Commerce degree from Rajasthan University. She is having over 5 years of experience as a Practicing Company Secretary. She is well versed with all the matters related to Company Law and ROC matters, RERA , statutory reporting, Compliance Report and Corporate Governance. She is having good exposure in maintaining secretarial records as prescribed under Companies Act, 2013.

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